So, recently I've picked up a copy of Ed Rosenthal's Marijuana Grower's Handbook, and it has been the most informative book I've read about Marijuana and plants in general.
One of the many things it talks about in the book is Terpenes.
Terpenes are what make up the biggest percent of the essential oils we have or have obtained from Plants. In Marijuana, Terpenes are a huge part of the resin.
When people spray smells (eg. Cologne) or when you take a sniff of the air and the smell of Coffee hits you, these examples are combinations of Terpenes. They have the ability to make you feel a certain mood, or alter your perception.
A few Terpenes I can list here are straight from the book, as I will be quoting it.
Myrcene - Presently found in many strains of Marijuana but also found hops, lemon grass, mercia, verbena and West Indian Bay Tree - smells like clove, earthy, nutty, citric smell. Myrcene works as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic that blocks mutagenesis related to carcinogenics. It's also found in overripened mangos.
Limonene - Found in Citrus fruits and flowers, better said it is found in the skin of an orange. Limonene has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and is anti-Cancer. It also can cause increased feelings of sexuality and focused attention.
B-Caryophyllene - found in Black Pepper, Clover and Cotton, it has a smell like wood, pepper or spicy smelling. When it is taken in larger doses, blocks calcium and potassium, slowing the pressure from Heart muscles. This is good for topical use in such things like Clove oil. It reduces inflammation.
Pinene - smells like Pine and is found in Pine Trees. Pinene is also found in Rosemary, Eucalyptus and various Sages. When it's used as a medicine it's used as a topical antiseptic. It also helps increase better memory. Pinene also is very high in Terpineol which knocks people out.
Terpineol - smells like Lilac or citrus fruit, it's used in many perfumes and soaps. It reduces movement by 45% - associated with feeling Sedated.
Borneol - smells like Menthol, found presently in Wormwood, and some types of Cinnamon plants. Borneol has been used since ancient Chinese medicine.
Linalool - smells floral, like lavender, Lily or neroli. "Humans can detect it's odor in the air at rates as low as one part per million." Linalool is being tested for use in Cancer Treatment. It also causes Sedation.
Pulegone - smells like Mint as well as it tastes like Mint, is used in the Candy industry, it is used to block the protein that destroys acetylcholine (the chemical in the brain that stores memories)
Cineole - The main ingredient in Eucalyptus oil, smells minty, it is used to increase circulation and pain relief and is also balancing and stimulating.